Life Safety and Fire Fighting Systems – The weakest hyperlink

Unlike different cables, fireplace resistant cables should work even when instantly exposed to the fire to keep important Life Safety and Fire Fighting tools working: Fire alarms, Emergency Lighting, Emergency Communication, Fire Sprinkler pumps, Fireman’s Lift sub-main, Smoke extraction fans, Smoke dampers, Stair pressurization followers, Emergency Generator circuits and so on.
In order to categorise electric cables as fire resistant they’re required to undergo testing and certification. Perhaps the primary common fireplace tests on cables were IEC 331: 1970 and later BS6387:1983 which adopted a gasoline ribbon burner take a look at to provide a flame during which cables had been placed.
Since the revision of BS6387 in 1994 there have been 11 enhancements, revisions or new check requirements launched by British Standards for use and application of Fire Resistant cables however none of these appear to deal with the core concern that fireplace resistant cables where examined to frequent British and IEC flame take a look at standards aren’t required to perform to the same hearth efficiency time-temperature profiles as each different construction, system or component in a constructing. Specifically, the place fire resistant constructions, methods, partitions, fireplace doorways, hearth penetrations fire obstacles, floors, walls and so forth. are required to be fireplace rated by constructing rules, they’re examined to the Standard Time Temperature protocol of BS476 elements 20 to 23 (also known as ISO834-1, ASNZS1530pt4, EN1363-1 and in America and Canada ASTM E119-75).
These tests are performed in large furnaces to replicate actual post flashover hearth environments. Interestingly, Fire Resistant cable check requirements like BS 6387CWZ, SS299, IEC 60331 BS8343-1 and 2, BS8491 solely require cables to be exposed to a flame in air and to decrease final test temperatures (than required by BS476 pts 20 to 23). Given Fire Resistant cables are likely to be uncovered in the identical fireplace, and are wanted to ensure all Life Safety and Fire Fighting techniques remain operational, this truth is maybe stunning.
Contrastingly in Germany, Belgium, Australia, New Zealand, USA and Canada Fire Resistant cable methods are required to be examined to the same hearth Time Temperature protocol as all different constructing components and this is the Standard Time Temperature protocol to BS476pts 20-23, IS0 834-1, EN1363-1 or ASTM E119-75 in USA.
The committees creating the usual drew on the steerage given from the International Fire Prevention Congress held in London in July 1903 and the measurements of furnace temperatures made in many fire checks carried out within the UK, Germany and the United States. The checks have been described in a sequence of “Red Books” issued by the British Fire Prevention Committee after 1903 as well as these from the German Royal Technical Research Laboratory. The finalization of the ASTM normal was heavily influenced by Professor I.H. Woolson, a Consulting Engineer of the USA National Board of Fire Underwriters and Chairman of the NFPA committee in Fire Resistive Construction who had carried out many checks at Columbia University and Underwriters Laboratories in Chicago. The small time temperature differences between the International ISO 834-1 check as we all know it at present and the America ASTM E119 / NFPA 251 checks doubtless stemmed from this time.
เกจวัดแรงดันน้ำไทวัสดุ of MICC Ltd.
The curve as we see it today (see graph above) has turn into the usual scale for measurement of fireplace check severity and has proved relevant for most above ground cellulosic buildings. When components, structures, components or systems are examined, the furnace temperatures are managed to evolve to the curve with a set allowable variance and consideration for preliminary ambient temperatures. The standards require parts to be tested in full scale and under situations of help and loading as defined to have the ability to characterize as accurately as potential its features in service.
This Standard Time Temperature testing protocol (see graph right) is adopted by nearly all international locations all over the world for fire testing and certification of just about all building constructions, components, methods and elements with the attention-grabbing exception of fireside resistant cables (exception in USA, Canada, Australia, Germany, Belgium and New Zealand the place hearth resistant cable methods are required to be tested and permitted to the Standard Time Temperature protocol, identical to all different constructing buildings, components and components).
It is important to know that software requirements from BS, IEC, ASNZS, DIN, UL etc. the place fireplace resistive cables are specified to be used, are only ‘minimum’ requirements. We know right now that fires aren’t all the identical and research by Universities, Institutions and Authorities around the world have recognized that Underground and some Industrial environments can exhibit very completely different fireplace profiles to these in above floor cellulosic buildings. Specifically in confined underground public areas like Road and Rail Tunnels, Underground Shopping facilities, Car Parks fire temperatures can exhibit a very quick rise time and can attain temperatures well above these in above ground buildings and in far less time. In USA right now electrical wiring methods are required by NFPA 502 (Road Tunnels, Bridges and different Limited Access Highways) to face up to fireplace temperatures as a lot as 1,350 Degrees C for 60 minutes and UK British Standard BS8519:2010 clearly identifies underground public areas such as car parks as “Areas of Special Risk” the place extra stringent test protocols for important electrical cable circuits may have to be thought of by designers.
Standard Time Temperature curves (Europe and America) plotted in opposition to widespread BS and IEC cable checks.
Of course all underground environments whether street, rail and pedestrian tunnels, or underground public environments like shopping precincts, car parks and so forth. may exhibit completely different hearth profiles to these in above ground buildings as a outcome of In these environments the warmth generated by any hearth cannot escape as simply as it might in above ground buildings thus relying more on heat and smoke extraction tools.
For Metros Road and Rail Tunnels, Hospitals, Health care amenities, Underground public environments like purchasing precincts, Very High Rise, Theaters, Public Halls, Government buildings, Airports etc. this is notably essential. Evacuation of these public environments is often sluggish even during emergencies, and it’s our duty to ensure everyone is given the very best likelihood of safe egress throughout hearth emergencies.
It can be understood right now that copper Fire Resistant cables where put in in galvanized steel conduit can fail prematurely during fire emergency due to a response between the copper conductors and zinc galvanizing contained in the metal conduit. In 2012 United Laboratories (UL®) in America removed all certification for Fire Resistive cables where put in in galvanized metal conduit because of this:
UL® Quote: “A concern was dropped at our attention related to the performance of these merchandise in the presence of zinc. เกจวัดแรงดันน้ำมันเบนซิน validated this finding. As a result of this, we changed our Guide Information to indicate that every one conduit and conduit fittings that are available in contact with fire resistive cables should have an interior coating freed from zinc”.
Time temperature profile of tunnel fires using vehicles, HGV trailers with totally different cargo and rail carriages. Graph extract: Haukur Ingason and Anders Lonnermark of the Swedish National Testing and Research Institute who presented the paper at the First International Symposium in Prague 2004: Safe and Reliable Tunnels.
It would appear that some Standards authorities around the globe could need to evaluation the present test methodology currently adopted for hearth resistive cable testing and perhaps align the efficiency of Life Safety and Fire Fighting wiring techniques with that of all the other fire resistant structures, parts and techniques in order that Architects, constructing designers and engineers know that once they want a fire score that the important wiring system shall be equally rated.
For many energy, control, communication and data circuits there may be one technology obtainable which can meet and surpass all current fire tests and applications. It is a solution which is frequently utilized in demanding public buildings and has been employed reliably for over eighty years. MICC cable know-how can present a complete and full answer to all the issues associated with the hearth security risks of modern versatile natural polymer cables.
The steel jacket, magnesium oxide insulation and conductors of MICC cables make sure the cable is successfully hearth proof. Bare MICC cables don’t have any organic content material so simply can not propagate flame or generate any smoke. The zero fuel-load of those MICC cables ensures no heat is added to the fireplace and no oxygen is consumed. Being inorganic these MICC cables can not generate any halogen or toxic gasses at all including Carbon Monoxide. MICC cable designs can meet all of the present and building fire resistance performance requirements in all international locations and are seeing a significant increase in use globally.
Many engineers have previously considered MICC cable expertise to be “old school’ but with the new research in fireplace performance MICC cable system at the second are confirmed to have far superior hearth performances than any of the newer more modern versatile fire resistant cables.
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